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Coffee Luwak Harvesting: A Controversial Delicacy

Coffee luwak Harvesting, also known as civet coffee, is a type of coffee that is made from coffee beans that have been eaten and excreted by the Asian palm civet, a small mammal native to South and Southeast Asia. The coffee beans undergo a natural fermentation process in the civet’s digestive tract, which is said to enhance their flavor and aroma. Coffee luwak is often considered one of the rarest and most expensive coffees in the world, with prices reaching up to US$1,300 per kilogram for wild-collected beans1

History of Coffee Luwak

The origin of coffee luwak harvesting is closely connected to the history of coffee production in Indonesia, which was colonized by the Dutch in the 17th century. The Dutch established coffee plantations in Indonesia and imported coffee beans from Yemen. However, they prohibited the local farmers from harvesting coffee beans for their own consumption. The farmers noticed that wild civets were eating the ripe coffee cherries and leaving the beans behind in their feces. They collected these beans and brewed coffee from them, which they found to have a unique and pleasant taste2

Production of Coffee Luwak

There are two main methods of producing coffee luwak: wild and farmed. In the wild method, the coffee beans are collected from the feces of free-roaming civets in the forest. This method is more ethical and environmentally friendly, as it does not harm the civets or their habitat. However, it is also more difficult and time-consuming, as the collectors have to search for the civet droppings in a large area3

In the farmed method, the civets are kept in cages and force-fed coffee cherries. This method is more efficient and profitable, as it ensures a steady supply of coffee beans. However, it is also more cruel and unsustainable, as it causes stress and disease to the civets and degrades the quality of the coffee. The caged civets are often fed low-quality cherries, which results in lower-quality beans. Moreover, the caged civets do not have the ability to select the ripest and best cherries, which is one of the factors that contributes to the flavor of coffee luwak4

Controversy and Criticism of Coffee Luwak

Coffee luwak has been criticized by animal rights activists, environmentalists, and coffee connoisseurs for various reasons. Animal rights activists condemn the farmed method of production, which they consider to be a form of animal abuse and exploitation. They argue that the civets are subjected to inhumane conditions, such as overcrowding, malnutrition, infection, and psychological distress. They also point out that the civets are often captured from the wild, which reduces their population and threatens their conservation5

Environmentalists warn that the farmed method of production has negative impacts on the ecosystem and biodiversity. They claim that the coffee plantations destroy the natural habitat of the civets and other wildlife, and that the intensive use of fertilizers and pesticides pollutes the soil and water. They also note that the farmed method of production reduces the genetic diversity of the coffee beans, as they are derived from a single source and lack the natural variation that occurs in the wild.

Coffee connoisseurs question the quality and authenticity of coffee luwak, especially the farmed variety. They doubt that the fermentation process in the civet’s digestive tract actually improves the flavor and aroma of the coffee beans, and that the high price of coffee luwak reflects its rarity and novelty rather than its quality. They also warn that some coffee luwak products may be adulterated or counterfeit, as there is no reliable way to verify their origin and processing.


Coffee luwak is a controversial delicacy that has attracted both admiration and criticism from different perspectives. While some people regard it as a gourmet coffee that offers a unique and exquisite taste, others view it as a cruel and unethical product that exploits animals and harms the environment. The debate over coffee luwak is likely to continue, as the demand for this rare and expensive coffee remains high in the global market.

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